The History of Islam in Europe, Part 1

Europe is very synonymous with one religion; namely, Christianity. Other beliefs have also left their mark on the continent. Whether it’s atheism or Judaism, Europe has a rich history of several faiths. One such religion not usually attributed to Europe is Islam. With millions of Muslims now in the region, this essay looks at the history of Islam in Europe.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th Century CE, Europe plunged into the Dark Ages. They would not see the same level of advancement again until the Renaissance, centuries later. This miedeval period was marked by the emergence of the Holy Roman Empire and the Catholic Church. The first Holy Roman Emperor was known as Charlamange, and he was crowned Emperor in CE 800. Another such period was also happening, at the same time.

The Islamic Golden Age was marked by great scientific, medical and cultural advancements. Muslims built the first hospitals. They also lived in an empire spanning three continents. Tariq Ibn Zaid was a Moorish conquerer that began Islam’s venture into Europe. He crossed the straight of Gibraltar in 711 CE and the rest, as they say, is history.

Muslims began building cities. One such famed city is Cordoba, which is one of the three capitals of the Islamic Empire (alongside Baghdad and Damascus). Muslims actually went as far as modern day France. This was until they were moved down across the Pyrenees mountains (separating modern day France and Spain) by Charles the Hammer. He was, coincidentally, the father of Charlamange.

Thus, this brings about the end of the first part of the history of Islam in Europe. It all started with Tariq Ibn Zaid crossing into Europe. He could have gone further too, if it were not for Charles the Hammer. There are millions of Muslims in Europe today. It is important to understand that Europe is home to many faiths, to curb the threats of intolerance, hate and ignorance.

Gravity Space-time Creation Theory

I’ve recently been thinking more about physics lately, as one does. Jokes aside, I was not very good at high school science, including physics. I did do well at science, before hand. Be that as it may, I came up with what is hopefully an original theory. Gravity creates time and space, as we know it.

First of all, what is time and space? Time is the measure of how long it takes the Earth to move around the Sun. All time is divisible by or a product of one turn around the Sun, or one year. Time on Venus or Mars would be different, therefore. It will either be shorter or longer. We only know time on Earth, but the time of day differs wsjbsbvcc rere you are on the planet.

This all sounds obvious, but what is the relation between time and gravity? Gravity is the force that creates the movements of the planets around be the sun. Earth’s gravity reacting to the Sun’s is what causes it to orbit around it. Thus, gravity creates time!

Likewise, gravity brings everything light enough in its field to it’s body’s surface. That is to say, the only thing that naturally exists between matter in space is space! Thus, gravity creates space.

In conclusion, gravity creates time and space. If there was no gravity, then the planet would not orbit around the Sun. This means that time as we know it would not exist. Likewise, matter would not be pulled to any planetary surface and we’d all be left travelling through outer space.

Two Book Promotions!

I’m running two Amazon Promotions soon! These will be for my books 1) Family Day and 2) Three Very Different Short Stories. The first promotion starts in two days and the one for Family Day is a free book promotion, starting soon. That’s right, you can get a free copy of Family Day in the next couple of days. Please look out for these Promotions on Amazon.

I’m nominated for a Reader’s Choice Award!

Hey everyone, today is a special day. That is because I found out that I am nominated for a TCK Publishing Reader’s Choice Award. I’m super excited about this. Please vote for Family Day, my book, in the General Fiction Category. Here’s the link:

2020 Reader’s Choice Voting Page

How to Self-Publish a Book

Finding an agent, getting signed to a publisher and sitting back while watching them make your book successful is a thing of the past. Not really, but there is an alternative these days to traditional publishing. That is self-publishing. You can write, create and release your book all by yourself, with the help of some increasingly popular launching boards. The question is how to do it; self-publishing is all about good writing, editing and marketing of your book.

the chronicles of narnia book
Photo by Pixabay on

First of all, in order to be a successful author you need to write a great book. Writing is a key component to being a writing success. Sounds obvious, but it is crucially significant that you release your best work. This involves following advice you may have picked up in writing and literature classes. It also involves good spelling, grammar and literary techniques.

Writing is not the only important aspect of self-publishing. You also have to edit your work. The difference between traditional publishing and self-publishing is that, although you earn more royalties usually with the latter, you also have to cover the costs of publishing your book when doing it on your own (even with the help of a self-publishing platform). The best solution is to hire an editor, if you can afford it. Drafting and re-writing your work, looking out for errors, is an alternative.

Finally, the brunt of marketing your book is placed firmly on your shoulders as a self-published author. Amazon, Facebook and Instagram, as well as other, ads and giveaways are a great option for you to explore. I tried good reads giveaways, and successfully giveaway 100 copies of my short story. More than 200 people requested it! While that’s not necessarily astronomical, it is a great start for future success.

The final  bit of advice is, if you are publishing from Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP, Amazon’s Self-publishing service), to opt in for expanded distribution when publishing your book. KDP is a great service and it allows you to make your book available for distributors to buy, in most cases. Schools, libraries and book stores buy their books from distributors, so, in signing up for expanded distribution, you give yourself the best chance of success. To sign up, you can tick the relevant box in the pricing page when launching your book. Please make sure to read all the set-up pages of KDP to find the expanded distribution option; there are only three pages to fill out.

In conclusion, self-publishing is doable activity; you simply have to write, edit and market your book. A lot of good advice is out there, such as creating a great cover, choosing the right keywords, etc. I believe that every writer can become a self-publishing success, hopefully this includes me ; ). Jokes aside, it is imperative that you put in the work to achieve your book’s full potential. Writing is fun and marketing is hard work. Those who work hard will enjoy good levels of returns and acclaim from self-publishing.


My University is under Threat of Closure

The University I went to, Richmond, the American International University in London, is under threat of closure. It will mean the world to me if you could sign this petition. Richmond should continue as it is a fantastic University, offering quality academic learning with an international environment to boot. Please chip in and/or share. You can find the petition in the following link:

How to make quality blog posts

A lot of people are interested in getting many followers and likes in their blogs. You may want to be a successful blogger yourself. What are the secrets to blog success? I already talked about blog quantity and frequency in another post (if you haven’t seen, please check it out). Here, I discuss the importance of blog quality and how to make good posts.

One of the most important things you can do to make a quality post is to do research. That’s right, it takes work to do things well. You should get good sources as well. Wikipedia is generally considered a good starting point, but a poor source. You should aim for more credible, relevant and academic sources.

The use of pictures and videos is also good with regards to blog quality. They add a certain dynamism to any post. Multimedia is usually good in making posts more diverse. People learn through different techniques. Visual learning is one such type of attaining knowledge.

Finally, please consider your audience when blogging. In academic writing, it is good to write in third person. Blogging, however, is lighter, more personal and informal. You can get away with writing in second and first person. You may as be blogging to seasoned veterans in a field or newcomers, so please keep that in mind.

In conclusion, blog quality is an important area to explore. Doing research is a good way to enhance the value of your posts. Using images and videos is another such way. Finally, it is important to keep your audience in mind. When in doubt, always strive for more quality.